Luxembourg ("lucilinburch" - means a small city "; Grand Duchy of Luxembourg) is located in Western Europe. Since 1957 Luxembourg is a member of the European Union. Luxembourg borders with France, Germany, Belgium.
At the end of the seventh century, the population of the territory of present-day Luxembourg adopted the Christian faith. In the medieval era, Luxembourg was part of Austrasia, the Roman Empire, Lorraine. Luxembourg gained independence in 963. The foundation of the formation of the state was laid by the fortified castle of Lisilinburg, at the head of which was Siegfried. The first earl of this small territory was Konrad (it happened in 1060). It became the Duchy of Luxembourg in 1354.
Currently, according to the form of government, Luxembourg is recognized as a constitutional monarchy, the head of state is the Grand Duke. The Grand Duke, according to the constitution, can approve and promulgate laws, command the armed forces, he wholly belongs to the executive power (but in fact the executive power is in the hands of the government).
Districts are the largest administrative units in Luxembourg (administered by the commissioners), which, in turn, are subdivided into cantons (governed by burgomasters) and communes. Elected councils are self-governing bodies in the smallest administrative units - communes. The official languages of the Grand Duchy are Luxembourgish, German and French.
Although Luxembourg occupies a small territory (it is slightly more than 2.5 thousand km), this country is very interesting in cultural terms, striking with an amazing combination of diverse landscapes. The Green Heart of Europe - this is how Luxembourg was nicknamed in honor of the most picturesque landscapes.
The vineyards and wines of Luxembourg are famous all over the world. Separately, it should be noted the Moselle varieties made from the Moselle Valley grapes, as well as several varieties of liqueur and sparkling wines. Several beers are also brewed here.
Luxembourg always welcomes tourists. Lovers of water sports can devote time to water sports, go yachting and boating on the rivers of Luxembourg, or go on a short boat trip on the Moselle River.
Luxembourg was founded in 963. Luklinburhuk is the original name of this amazing country. Translated into Russian, it meant "little castle". The variety of landscapes pleases the local residents of the country and amaze those who come here for the first time. It is hard to imagine how this small territory absorbed all this diversity. You can explore Luxembourg by bus excursions. If you wish, you can take a look at almost all the sights of Luxembourg at once - not because there are few of them, but because this country is tiny.
Vineyards in Luxembourg are a local celebrity. They are located in the Moselle Valley, with the most common viticulture in its southern half. These are territories from Schengen to Remich. Moselle wines are famous all over the world. Using champagne technology, amazing sparkling wines are prepared here. No less famous is the black currant wine from the Beaufort Castle. In addition to wine, this area produces several varieties of liqueurs, high quality beer, as well as mineral waters and fruit juices. In Luxembourg, there are several villages that are famous for the production of specific types of wines. These wines are characterized by the presence of very special, unique qualities. For example, these are wines "Enensky Visselt" and "Aansky Palomberg". The most valuable vineyards are located near the villages of Aan Henin, Vintrange, Schwebzingen, Wormeldange, and the small towns of Grevenmacher and Remich are recognized as the main centers of winemaking.
Luxembourg is a country with a cultural heritage. A tourist who comes here must definitely visit the Palace of the Grand Duke (XVI century), the Gothic Cathedral of Notre Dame (XVII century), the castle of Esch-sur-Alzette (XIX century). The National Museum of Luxembourg is very famous. Here the visitor can see the departments of both modern and ancient art. The medieval town of Rothenburg ob der Tauberg will not leave you indifferent either.
Luxembourg (the capital of the same name of Luxembourg) is a contrasting city. The date of its foundation goes back more than a thousand years ago. The traveler will never forget this vibrant, beautiful city. Luxembourg is a very contrasting city. It has incorporated architectural structures made in different styles and belonging to different historical eras. Bridges ("Adolf's Bridge" and more than a hundred other various bridge structures), spiers of churches and palaces are immersed in the greenery of parks. Petrus and Alzette are two rivers in Luxembourg. These rivers divide the territory of the city into two parts - the Upper City and the Lower City - each of which is significantly different from each other. The upper city reminds of distant times - numerous ancient buildings, a ducal palace, the remains of a once majestic fortress create an aura of antiquity. Many houses are made in the Gothic style and fit very organically into the surrounding landscape - sandstone and limestone cliffs and rocks. The new quarters of the lower city leave an imprint of modernity. There are many industrial enterprises and institutions here.
"Adolphe's Bridge" is the famous viaduct that connects Luxembourg into a single whole. Indeed, this bridge is intended to connect the Upper City and the Lower City. The "Adolf Bridge" was built at the beginning of the last century (1900-1903). Named after Duke Adolf, who ruled during its construction. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the "Adolf Bridge" was considered the largest stone bridge in the world. The maximum height of the bridge is forty-two meters, and the total length of the bridge is one hundred and fifty-three meters. The length of the "Adolphe Bridge" arch is eighty-five meters. In addition to the "Adolf Bridge", there are many other bridges in the capital. They are so unlike each other that one can only marvel at their diversity. The last su is an amazing arch bridge, the old Hondeheishen bridge. And the Grand Duchess Charlotte Bridge, built in 1962-1966, is one of the largest bridges made of steel. The length of the Charlotte Bridge (the second name is the Red Bridge) is three hundred and fifty-five meters.
The Parade Square in Luxembourg is the center of city life. This square is decorated with a monument to the poets Dikk and Lenz. Not far from the Parade Square, an inquisitive traveler can see the Grand Duke's palace. This three-story building, representing the architecture of the Renaissance, was erected in 1580.
In Luxembourg, not only adults, but also children can spend time. You should definitely show your child the Miracles Park, located in Betemburg. The Haldenberg tourist center and the park in Mondorf-le-Baie will also impress both children and their parents.
Clervaux is a medieval town. This association is associated with the predominance of Gothic architecture, as well as the ruins of a knight's castle here. The greatness of the town, which is also the northernmost in Luxembourg, is given by the buildings of the abbey (this abbey is very famous in Luxembourg).
The highest part of Luxembourg is Esling. This is the northern region of the country. Some of the peaks are more than five hundred meters above sea level. Esling occupies about a third of Luxembourg's territory. Wiltz is the largest city in Essling. Like the city of Luxembourg, Wiltz consists of two parts. The upper city is located at a height of four hundred meters. There is an ancient fortress in the center of the upper town. The lower town is located eighty meters down the slope. Wiltz is a very beautiful town. Its surroundings are especially picturesque. The impression of provincialism that a visitor may have is associated with some chaotic nature of his development. The town of Esch-sur-Sur is conveniently located ten kilometers from Wiltz. Since ancient times, this town has specialized in cloth making. "Ash in the pit" - this is how the locals called the city because of its low-lying location.
Vianden is one of the most picturesque in Luxembourg. It is located at some distance from Wiltz. Vianden is located at the foot of an ancient fortress. It used to belong to the Dukes of Nassau. The proximity of the Ur valley adds to the picturesque nature of Viandenu. The celebrity of Vianden is given by the fact that the great writer V. Hugo lived in this city - in 1948 his house was restored, later a museum appeared here.
Gutland is the southern part of Luxembourg. It occupies about 70 percent of the territory, and almost 90 percent of the total population lives here. Gutland, which means "good land", is occupied by rolling hills. The diversity of its landscape is provided by the alternation of pastures and meadows, gardens and fields, thickets of bushes and small forests.
"Luxembourg Switzerland" is a special corner of the Grand Duchy. It occupies the territory along the White and Black Erents rivers. Deep gorges with steep walls adjoin high peaks and stone pillars. This kind of contrast is associated with the junction of Jurassic sandstones and Triassic limestones in this area. In the immediate vicinity of Berdorf there is an amazing rock with a cave. The powerful vault of the cave, which is popularly nicknamed "Roman", is supported by huge columns, created by the hand of nature. An unusually beautiful landscape can be admired near the dilapidated Beaufort Fortress. Not at all big, but fast Hallerbach stream, falls off the stones with real waterfalls. The valley of this stream is completely overgrown with hazel, beech, oak. The air is amazingly fresh here.
Echternach is one of the most ancient cities in Luxembourg. It is located near the "Luxembourg Switzerland". The city of Echternach has almost a thousand years of history. In the city, a tourist will be able to get acquainted with a large number of ancient buildings. Each building has the right to "boast" of quaint arches and vaults. The mountainous and wooded coast of the Syur looks at the city of Echternach. All kinds of festivals and processions are often held in this city. This is a recognized tourist center, almost in no way inferior to the capital of the Grand Duchy.
The Feast of St. Blasius is a revered holiday in Luxembourg. It is celebrated on February 2. On this day, children sing the song of St.Valsius and ask for food. Their procession is adorned with accessories such as canes with lanterns fixed at the ends. An interesting fact is that in the songs of St. Blasia also talks about bacon and peas. This circumstance makes it possible to assume that many years ago on this day the poor man asked for food. Like most traditions, this holiday has a long history. Children are begging now. They enthusiastically accept the treat offered by adults and never refuse if they also give coins.
The burning of the Burg is another tradition in Luxembourg. It is connected with the Burgsondeg holiday. On this day, a large bale of brushwood, logs and hay is built - this is actually the Burg. Then, at a certain time, all this is exposed to fire by the organizers of the holiday (as a rule, these are young people). Volunteers from the fire station are sure to watch what is happening. In some cities, tradition grants the honor of setting fire to the Burg to a pair of newlyweds. This tradition has a long history. It symbolizes the beginning of the long-awaited spring and the end of a long winter. On this day, light conquers darkness, and heat conquers cold.
Luxembourg is a Christian country. Therefore, Easter is very widely celebrated here. By tradition, Easter eggs are presented on this day. In the Grand Duchy, it is customary to hide painted eggs throughout the house and in the garden. Adults enjoy watching their children search for Easter eggs with equal enthusiasm. The tradition of self-coloring eggs is very strong and cannot be supplanted by the commercial sale of Easter eggs. Women also give their husbands Easter eggs, but often chocolate eggs filled with pralines. Interestingly, the public celebration falls not on Easter Sunday, but on Easter Monday - on this day, many attend one of the two fairs taking place at this time in Luxembourg (one fair in the capital of the Grand Duchy, the other in the western part of the country). Pottery is of particular importance at the fairs, although folk entertainment, drinks and food are also important. Parents buy clay bird whistles for their children. Their sound resembles the cry of a cuckoo.
The holiday of Octave is considered the main religious event in Luxembourg. This holiday is held in honor of the Most Holy Theotokos. On this day, the capital's cathedral attracts parishioners from all over the country, as well as the German Eiffel and the French region of Lorraine. 1666 is the year of the birth of this tradition. It was then that the Virgin Mary was chosen as the patroness of the Grand Duchy. The comforter of the suffering protected the people from the plague. In the same 1666, the Jesuits from the old church to the cathedral moved the statue of the Virgin Mary, which was carved from dark wood. In the main choir, on a special altar, stands a statue during the Octave. The procession gathers on the outskirts of Luxembourg (city), then the pilgrims move on foot to the Cathedral. Each parishioner orders their own mass, and after the service at the Octave Market, pilgrims can taste food and quench their thirst. This market, located on Place Guillem, has been part of the tradition for many years. The religious holiday ends with a procession, the purpose of which is to carry the statue of the Virgin Mary through the streets of the capital.
The jumpers' procession in Echternach has gained an international reputation. This unusual tradition is indeed known outside the Grand Duchy; it is part of a centuries-old religious tradition. The jumpers' procession falls on the Tuesday following Trinity. This tradition dates back to pagan times. Legend dates it to the eighth century. It says that in those ancient times, Faith went on a pilgrimage with his wife. However, the woman died on the way. Years later, Faith returned to his native land and found that all his property was appropriated by relatives. Moreover, they spread a rumor that Faith killed his wife. As a result, this unfortunate man was sentenced to death. Faith's last wish was to play the violin. When the music began, the entire assembled population began to dance. Even tired, no one could stop. Taking advantage of this, Faith calmly left the city. The prayer was saved from the dance by the prayer of Saint Willibord, who came to the place of the events described. The spell of the innocent Faith is called the dance of St. Vitus. The jumpers' procession was called upon to relieve the population of the "tiresome" dance, as well as all ailments and diseases. The jumpers' procession has been a great religious event for many years. Believers came to it (most on foot) from different parts of Luxembourg and from outside the country. The processional dance currently consists of two steps to the right and two steps to the left, while in the past there were three steps forward and two steps back. The latter became the basis of the well-known metaphor: "to take an ekternach step". The dancers line up in rows of 7 or 5 people. Each of its participants holds a handkerchief by the corner.The procession is moving forward rather slowly - it will take at least three hours to overcome the chosen route (includes passing in front of the tomb of St. Willibrord). All this is accompanied by a repetitive melody that can lead to a trance. At least ten thousand people gather along the streets to see the amazing religious tradition.
June 23 is a national holiday in Luxembourg. From 1919 to 1964, Luxembourg was ruled by the Grand Duchess Charlotte. Her birthday was on January 23rd. However, it was celebrated on a summer day on June 23rd. This number was announced as a national holiday after Jean became Grand Duke. The holiday begins with a greeting from the ducal family. For this purpose, a parade with lighted torches is organized in front of the palace, after which thousands of participants of the holiday go to the Adolf Bridge for fireworks. Then each Luxembourg square offers its own entertainment program. Artists, ensembles, musicians, clowns, brass bands gather here. After accepting the parade, the Grand Duke goes with his family to the Cathedral. A thanksgiving service is held here in honor of the Luxembourg House. The national day is celebrated in each of the one hundred and eighteen urban formations of the Grand Duchy. The national holiday is necessarily accompanied by the mayor's patriotic speech and awards.
The Schuberfoer holiday is a centuries-old tradition. It was installed by the Count of Luxembourg John the Blind in 1340. Nowadays Schuberfoer (or in the vocabulary of Luxembourgers, simply Foer) is an amusement fair, and in the past it was a market. Hardly anyone knows for sure where this colloquial name came from. The former argue that the name is associated with the place where the market was held earlier. Others say that the name comes from the word "shober". In translation, it means "haystack", and the day of the fair practically coincides with the harvesting holiday - the day of St. Bartholomew. The market that once existed was eventually transformed into an amusement fair, which is held on the territory of Glacis. The fair is presented with attractions for every taste, there are both traditional Ferris wheels and roller coasters. Here you can also find stubborn sellers who have not deviated from a long tradition of stubborn sellers who offer wonderful kitchen tools, ebony carvings, roasted hazelnuts, nougat, etc. Schuberfoer, like many others, is never complete without food and drinks. The Forfesh dish deserves special attention. It is a whiting fish fried in brewer's yeast. It is traditionally served with fried potatoes and washed down with either a glass of the famous Moselle wine or a glass of beer. The opening ceremony of the Schuberfoer festival is attended by musicians, as well as a shepherd with sheep (the "sheep march" is performed). The musicians, following the shepherd and his small flock of sheep, walk the city streets and, according to tradition, play an old folk melody - "Sheep March". Dressed in blue suits, they resemble nineteenth-century farmers.
Grape festivals are traditional in Luxembourg. So are the wine festivals. Currently, in Luxembourg, grapes are grown almost exclusively on the banks of the Moselle. But even the small amount of grapes that are grown along the Sauer are still transported to the Moselle for wine production. Winemakers of the Grand Duchy produce 7 varieties of white wines, a small amount of rosé wine, as well as several varieties of sparkling wines (locals call them "Champ"). White wines are Riesling, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Auxerrois, Ebling, Gewurztraminer and Rivaner. Rosé wines - Pinot noir, Pinot rose and Ebling rose.
Wine festivals and grape festivals in Luxembourg are not the same thing. The grape festivals usually fall in October. They are held in gratitude for the grape harvest. The Schwebzang Grape Festival is considered to be one of a kind. Instead of water, wine flows in the city fountain. And in Grevenmacher, by tradition, the Queen of Grapes is transported through the city. The procession is accompanied by music, orchestras, a parade and, of course, wine. Essentially, wine celebrations are village celebrations. As a rule, they are held in the spring, their purpose is to communicate, they are accompanied by dance music. There are, of course, wine and traditional food at the festival. The action takes place either on the street under a large tent, in the meeting room of a local winery or under a large tent outside. During May or June, a similar event is organized by every wine producing company. The purpose of the festival is to taste fresh wines.
The life of St. Nicholas is shrouded in more than one legend. St. Nicholas, being the archbishop of Lycia in Asia Minor, lived in the fourth century. The most famous legend says that St. Nicholas rescued three children from a salting barrel (St. Nicholas is the patron saint of children). St. Nicholas falls on December 6. On the eve of this holiday, the saint descends from heaven in order to give gifts to those children who behaved well.